Metabolism: Metabolized by hydroxylation and deamination in the liver.
Pharmacokinetics Absorption: Absorbed completely within 3 hours after oral administration. Adults: 5 to 30 mg daily in divided doses of 5 to 10 mg.
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Amphetamines are used to treat narcolepsy and as adjuncts to psychosocial measures in attention deficit disorder in children. Dosage rarely exceeds 40 mg daily. Conventional Tablets Oral Dosage rarely should exceed a total daily dosage of 40 mg.
Children older than age 10 mg P. Dosage titration usually requires 2—4 weeks. Specific Populations.
Give first dose upon awakening; give additional doses at 4- to 6-hour intervals. At high doses, effects are mediated by dopamine.
Seizures Possible lowering of seizure threshold in patients with history of seizures, in those with prior EEG abnormalities but no history of seizures, and, very rarely, in those without history of seizures and with no prior evidence of EEG abnormalities. Patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other manifestations suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant therapy should undergo prompt cardiac evaluation.
Amphetamines may be tried for short-term control of refractory obesity, with caloric restriction and behavior modification. Short-term adjunct in exogenous obesity. Pharmacodynamics CNS stimulant action: Amphetamines are sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity; in hyperactive children, sulfatd have a paradoxical calming effect.
Adults: 5 to 60 mg P. Increased at 2.
The cerebral cortex and reticular activating system appear to be their primary sites of activity; amphetamines release nerve terminal stores of norepinephrine, promoting nerve impulse transmission. Slfate age 6 and older: 5 mg P.
Anorexigenic action: Anorexigenic effects are thought to occur in the hypothalamus, where decreased smell and taste acuity decreases the appetite. Children ages 6 to 5 mg P. Increase at 5-mg increments weekly until desired response.
Rarely, psychotic reactions, mood disturbances, or hallucinations can occur. Distribution: Distributed widely throughout body, with high concentrations in the brain.
Excretion: Excreted in urine. Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg Indications and dosages Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Children ages 3 to 5: 2.